One can become a U.S. citizen through a variety of means—birth in the United States, birth abroad to a U.S. citizen parent, or through the naturalization process. For all these processes, a specific series of legal requirements must be met. At the U.S. Embassy and Consulates in Brazil, we can issue a Consular Report of Birth Abroad (CRBA) for eligible individuals born abroad to U.S. citizen parents.
Anyone who has a claim to U.S. citizenship must be in possession of a valid U.S passport to enter and exit the United States, even if they have citizenship of another country.
We also process Certificates of Loss of Nationality for those U.S. citizens who would like to give up their U.S. citizenship or believe that they have expatriated themselves.
U.S. CONSULAR REPORT OF BIRTH ABROAD
A Consular Report of Birth Abroad (CRBA) certifies the acquisition of U.S. citizenship at birth for a person born abroad to a U.S. citizen parent or parents who meet the requirements to transmit citizenship under the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA).
Transmission of U.S. citizenship
- At least one parent must have U.S. citizenship at the time of the child’s birth.
- Existence of a blood relationship between the child and U.S. citizen parent(s).
- Documentary evidence of U.S. Citizen parent’s residence or physical presence in the United States.
- If only one parent is a U.S. citizen, the U.S. citizen parent must present evidence of physical presence in the United States prior to the child’s birth (generally at least 5 years of physical presence in the United States, including two years while over the age of 14). Transmission requirements vary by the child’s date of birth and the marital status of the child’s parents.
Note: Adopted children or children under 18, born to U.S. citizens who are not eligible for U.S. citizenship as described above, may be eligible under the Child Citizenship Act of 2000. Further information is available at the Department of State’s website.
Physical Presence in the United States
Some examples of documentary evidence that may be considered to demonstrate that physical presence requirements have been met may include (but are not limited to):
- Rental leases;
- Vaccination or other medical records;
- Utility bills;
- Wage and tax statements (W-2);
- Official school transcripts;
- Employment records;
- Military records;
- Employment with U.S. Government or certain intergovernmental international organizations; or as a dependent, unmarried child and member of the household of a parent in such service or employment (except where indicated);
- U.S. passport stamps may be considered a part of the evidence submitted but should not be the sole documentary evidence.
If you have other children who have been issued with a Consular Report of Birth Abroad, this may be considered as supplemental evidence.
Eligibility for a CRBA
A Consular Report of Birth Abroad (CRBA) is official evidence of United States citizenship, issued to a child born abroad to a U.S. citizen parent or parents, who meet the requirements for transmitting citizenship under the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA).
CRBA applications must be made before the child’s 18th birthday, and we strongly recommend that parents apply for the CRBA as soon as possible after the child’s birth.
Applicants 18 years old and over, born outside the United States, may claim U.S. citizenship from a parent who at the time of the applicant’s birth was a United States citizen. Once the citizenship claim is established, the applicant qualifies for a first-time U.S. passport. Please email the Embassy or Consulate where you would like to file your application. As a CRBA is not a travel document, it is strongly recommended that you submit an application for the child’s U.S. passport at the same time. Both applications may be submitted together at your scheduled appointment.
Please note that you must apply for your child’s social security number at a U.S. Social Security Administration office. If you reside in Brazil, you can contact the SSA Federal Benefits Unit (FBU) located in Lisbon, Portugal. For more information on their services and how to contact them, please visit their webpage at: https://pt.usembassy.gov/u-s-citizen-services/social-security/.
Applicants are required to apply for a CRBA electronically in Brazil. This online feature allows U.S. citizen parents to complete a CRBA application online, upload all required documents, and submit payment prior to the in-person interview.
Note: Applicants must have a Login.gov account to access eCRBA services on the MyTravelGov portal. Instructions for creating a Login.gov account are available at MyTravel.state.gov. If you already have an eCRBA application in progress, use the same email address previously used to access the MyTravelGov website to create an account. This ensures a streamlined linkage between your existing profile and the new authentication system.
To apply for a CRBA online, please follow the instructions below:
- Create a MyTravelGov account. MyTravelGov is a secured, encrypted portal. Watch this to learn more about creating your account.
- Once you have created a MyTravelGov account you can access eCRBA and submit your application online. The easy-to-use online process provides applicants with step-by-step instructions on how to complete the application. You may review the necessary documents for the CRBA application in advance by reviewing the “Required Documents for a Consular Report of Birth Abroad (CRBA)” information below.
- When you complete the online application and submit your payment, you will be directed to schedule your appointment at the U.S. Embassy or the nearest consulate to you in Brazil. Please schedule your appointment a minimum of 5 working days after the date of submission to allow payment processing to be completed. If your payment has not cleared before your interview, we will not be able to proceed with your interview.
- Attend your scheduled in-person interview with your original documents and their photocopies (single-sided). Original documents will be returned to you after reviewing your application. The child must be present at the time of application. Generally, both parents also attend the interview.
If you are unable to make the payment online or complete the online CRBA application, please email the Embassy or consulate where you plan to file the application.
Please put in the Subject of the email: “CRBA Request – Your child’s name”.
Porto Alegre: firstname.lastname@example.org
São Paulo: email@example.com
Rio de Janeiro: firstname.lastname@example.org
Consular Agency in Fortaleza: fortalezaACS@state.gov
Consular Agency in Manaus: email@example.com
Consular Agency in Salvador: firstname.lastname@example.org
Please refer to the Contact Information and Working Hours page to find the addresses and working hours of each American Citizen Services Unit in Brazil.
Required Documents for a Consular Report of Birth Abroad (CRBA)
Both parents must come in person with the child and should bring:
- DS-11: Application for a U.S. Passport (PDF 1.8MB). Both parents must be present at the time of the interview. If a parent cannot be present, Form DS-3053 (Notarized Statement of Consent) must be presented. The absent parent must sign and date Form DS-3053 in the presence of the certified notary public and attach a copy of the ID presented to the notary. Note that Brazilian notaries (cartórios) sometimes notarize documents without the person being present or use the phrase “por semelhanca” when notarizing the document. Unfortunately, the Consulate cannot accept this type of notarized document
- Evidence of U.S. Citizen Parent’s Residence or Physical Presence in the United States: If only one parent is a U.S. citizen, the U.S. citizen parent must present evidence of physical presence in the United States prior to the child’s birth (generally at least 5 years of physical presence in the United States, including two years while over the age of 14). Transmission requirements vary by the child’s date of birth and the marital status of the child’s parents. child’s parents. Examples: Original school transcripts, records of military service (DD-214) showing nature of discharge (if any), Social Security income statements, and employment records.
- One recent 5x5cm photo
- Child’s Brazilian birth certificate (original and copy): applicants with Brazilian birth certificates filed on or after January 1, 2018, must submit the original full-content birth certificate (“inteiro teor”), which can be obtained at the “cartório” where the birth was registered.
- Prenatal records and/or other evidence of mother’s pregnancy: Please bring original documents. These are helpful in establishing the existence of the pregnancy as well as the biological relationship of the applicant to the mother, regardless of her citizenship. Ultrasound reports can assist in ascertaining the probable conception period.
- Parents’ Civil Marriage Certificate (original and copy), if applicable.
- Termination of previous marriages: if one or both parents have been previously married. Example: divorce decree, death certificate.
- Evidence of the parent’s U.S. citizenship: Examples: valid U.S. passport or passport ID, U.S. birth certificate, U.S. certificate of naturalization, consular report of birth abroad, U.S. certificate of citizenship.
- Parent’s ID: If one parent is not a U.S. citizen it is necessary to present a valid ID.
- Family photos: showing the child’s development if the child is not an infant.
- Children born in Brazil to American parents, except those in diplomatic or official status, acquire Brazilian Citizenship at birth as well as a possible claim to American Citizenship. Children with dual nationality are required to enter and exit Brazil with a Brazilian passport; however, they will also need a U.S. passport to enter and exit the United States.
REPLACEMENT COPIES OF YOUR CONSULAR REPORT OF BIRTH ABROAD
Official copies of previously issued Consular Reports of Birth Abroad are not available from the Embassy or Consulate and must be requested directly from the Department of State in Washington. Please refer to the Department of State website for ordering instructions.
My child has both Brazilian and U.S. citizenship. Is it necessary to choose which citizenship to keep?
U.S. citizenship is for life. No child must do anything at any age to retain, choose, affirm, or confirm U.S. citizenship.
WHO CAN ATTEND APPOINTMENT?
Generally, immediate family members may accompany passport or CRBA applicants to their appointments at a U.S. embassy or consulate, and all minor children must be accompanied by a parent or guardian. Passport or CRBA applicants also have the option of being accompanied by an attorney. Attendance by any third party, including an attorney, accompanying an applicant is subject to the following parameters:
Given space limitations in the consular section, not more than one attendee at a time will be allowed to accompany an applicant (with the exception of an applicant’s parents or guardians if the applicant is a minor). Attendance by an attorney does not excuse the applicant and/or the minor applicant’s parent or guardian from attending the appointment interview in person.
The manner in which a passport or CRBA appointment interview is conducted, and the scope and nature of the inquiry, shall at all times be at the discretion of the consular officer, following applicable Departmental guidance. It is expected that attorneys will provide their clients with relevant legal advice prior to, rather than at, the appointment interview, and will advise their clients prior to the appointment interview that the client will participate in the appointment interview with minimal assistance.
Attorneys may not engage in any form of legal argumentation during the appointment interview and before the consular officer.
Attendees other than a parent or guardian accompanying a minor child may not answer a consular officer’s question on behalf or in lieu of an applicant, nor may they summarize, correct, or attempt to clarify an applicant’s response, or interrupt or interfere with an applicant’s responses to a consular officer’s questions. To the extent that an applicant does not understand a question, s/he should seek clarification from the consular officer directly.
The consular officer has sole discretion to determine the appropriate language(s) for communication with the applicant, based on the facility of both officer and applicant and the manner and form that best facilitate communication between the consular officer and the applicant. Attendees may not demand that communications take place in a particular language solely for the benefit of the attendee. Nor may attendees object to or insist on the participation of an interpreter in the appointment interview, to the qualifications of any interpreter, or to the manner or substance of any translation.
No attendee may coach or instruct applicants as to how to answer a consular officer’s question.
Attendees may not object to a consular officer’s question on any ground (including that the attendee regards the question to be inappropriate, irrelevant, or adversarial), or instruct the applicant not to answer a consular officer’s question. Attendees may not interfere in any manner with the consular officer’s ability to conduct all inquiries and fact-finding necessary to exercise his or her responsibilities to adjudicate the application.
During a passport or CRBA appointment interview, attendees may not discuss or inquire about other applications. Attendees may take written notes but may not otherwise record the appointment interviews.
Attendees may not engage in any other conduct that materially disrupts the appointment interview. For example, they may not yell at or otherwise attempt to intimidate or abuse a consular officer or staff, and they may not engage in any conduct that threatens U.S. national security or the security of the embassy or its personnel. Attendees must follow all security policies of the Department of State and the U.S. embassy or consulate where the appointment interview takes place.
Attendees may not engage in any conduct that violates this policy and/or otherwise materially disrupts the appointment interview. Failure to observe these parameters will result in a warning to the attendee and, if ignored, the attendee may be asked to leave the appointment interview and/or the premises, as appropriate. It would then be the applicant’s choice whether to continue the appointment interview without the attendee present, subject to the consular officer’s discretion to terminate the appointment interview. The safety and privacy of all applicants awaiting consular services, as well as of consular and embassy personnel, is of paramount consideration.
SECURITY AT THE EMBASSY AND CONSULATES
Notice: For security reasons, visa applicants and U.S. citizens are not allowed to enter the Embassy or Consulates with cell phones and other electronic devices (including but not limited to smartwatches, activity monitoring devices such as fitbits, tablets, laptops, and recording devices). Bags, except for one small purse or equivalent, are also not allowed. All visitors and items brought into the Embassy or Consulates are subject to a complete search. Neither the Embassy nor the Consulates have storage facilities for such items. We strongly discourage our customers from bringing these devices when they come to the Embassy or Consulates to conduct business. If you must bring these devices with you, there are private companies that provide storage facilities for a fee. These companies are not sanctioned by or otherwise affiliated with the U.S. government, and the U.S. government takes no responsibility for devices left in their care.
ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNOLOGY (ART) /SURROGACY
Cases involving Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART), including surrogacy, require clear evidence of the child’s genetic or gestational relationship to the transmitting U.S. citizen parent in addition to the other transmission requirements outlined on this webpage. DNA testing may be suggested to confirm the qualifying relationship. All costs and expenses associated with DNA testing must be borne solely by the passport applicant and their family.
Often, individuals underestimate the time required for determining their newborns’ eligibility for U.S. citizenship, obtaining their passports, and the potential for complications and delays in this process. While your case will be processed as quickly as possible, it is important to keep in mind that this process can be lengthy, and cases cannot be adjudicated or reviewed ahead of the submission of the formal application and fee payment.
For a child born through surrogacy to acquire U.S. citizenship, it is necessary to provide the appropriate documentation:
- Application for a Consular Report of Birth Abroad of a U.S. Citizen (CRBA) (DS-2029, PDF 932 KB)
When filling out the application for the CRBA, please provide the information of all parents listed on the Brazilian birth certificate, including the genetically related or gestational parent.
- Proof of a genetic or gestational relationship between the newborn child and a U.S. citizen parent. The genetically related or gestational parent must be a U.S. citizen at the time of the baby’s birth to be eligible to transmit citizenship. To demonstrate this relationship, you must present all documents related to the contracted ART service, and child’s conception and birth, including the birth certificate. Please be aware that ART and surrogacy situations are complex and frequently require additional documentation. If the consular officer is not convinced of the biological relationship, DNA testing may be suggested.
- Proof of the U.S. citizen parent(s)’ physical presence in the United States according to the requirements of U.S. immigration law. If only one parent is genetically or gestationally related to the child, physical presence requirements will be based on sections of the law for out-of-wedlock births. The rules regarding physical presence are very specific, and you should review them carefully by clicking here.
U.S. CITIZENS CONSIDERING THE USE OF ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNOLOGY (ART) ABROAD
Information from the U.S. Department of State regarding whether a child born abroad via ART/ surrogacy may or may not acquire U.S. citizenship at birth can be found at: Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) and Surrogacy Abroad (state.gov)
LOSS OF U.S. CITIZENSHIP
Loss of U.S. citizenship is a serious and irrevocable act which deserves your thoughtful consideration. It is imperative that you fully understand the nature of its consequences prior to requesting a Certificate of Loss of Nationality. Please note that the action you are taking is irrevocable. For questions related to possible tax implications, please contact the Internal Revenue Service.
Note: Expatriation cannot be exercised by another person, including parents and legal guardians.
If you wish to apply for a Certificate of Loss of Nationality you will be required to attend an appointment with a consular officer. At the time of your appointment, the consular officer will interview you and, if necessary, administer the Oath of Renunciation and forward your application to the Department of State for review. This process may take several months to be completed.
Renunciation refers to the expatriating act of taking a formal oath of renunciation of citizenship. To apply for expatriation under Section 349 (a)(5) of Immigration and Nationality Act (INA), please submit the following:
- Evidence of U.S. Citizenship, such as your most recent U.S. passport, U.S. birth certificate or U.S. Consular Report of Birth Abroad.
- Bio-pages of all current foreign passports
- Certificates of Naturalization for any country, including the United States, if applicable
- Certificates of Citizenship for any country, including the United States, if applicable
- Evidence of any name changes, if applicable (for instance marriage or divorce certificates, court orders, or deed polls)
- Fee: USD 2,350
Relinquishment is the performance of an expatriating act voluntarily taken with the intent to relinquish citizenship. In the event that you committed a potential expatriating act with the intent to lose U.S. citizenship as described in Sections 349 (a)(1)-(4) and (6)(7) of the INA, please submit the following:
- Evidence of U.S. Citizenship, such as your most recent U.S. passport, U.S. birth certificate or U.S. Consular Report of Birth Abroad.
- Bio-pages of all current foreign passports.
- Certificates of Naturalization for any country, including the United States, if applicable.
- Certificates of Citizenship for any country, including the United States, if applicable.
- Evidence of any name changes, if applicable (for instance marriage or divorce certificates, court orders or deed polls).
- Completed Form DS-4079
- Fee: USD 2,350
Please do not schedule a Loss of Nationality appointment using our online calendar. All appointments for this service will be scheduled by email only.