Citizenship Services

One can become a U.S. citizen through a variety of means—birth in the United States, birth abroad to a U.S. citizen parent, or through the naturalization process. For all these processes, a specific series of legal requirements must be met. At the U.S. Embassy and Consulates in Brazil, we can provide certification of U.S. citizenship for eligible individuals born abroad to U.S. citizen parents. We also process Certificates of Loss of Nationality for those U.S. citizens who would like to give up their U.S. citizenship or believe that they have expatriated themselves.

U.S. Consular Report of Birth Abroad

Transmission of U.S. citizenship depends on:

  1. At least one parent having the nationality of the United States at the time of the child’s birth;
  2. The existence of a blood relationship between the child and U.S. citizen parent(s);
  3. Documentary evidence demonstrating the U.S. citizen parent(s)’ presence in the United States prior to the child’s birth.

Adopted children or children under 18, born to U.S. citizens who are not eligible for U.S. citizenship as described above may be eligible under the Child Citizenship Act of 2000. Further information is available from the Department of State’s website.

Examples of Documentation

Some examples of documentary evidence which may be considered to demonstrate that physical presence requirements have been met may include (but are not limited to):

  • Wage and tax statements (W-2)
  • Academic transcripts
  • Employment records
  • Rental receipts
  • Records of honorable U.S. military service, employment with U.S. Government or certain intergovernmental international organizations; or as a dependent, unmarried child and member of the household of a parent in such service or employment (except where indicated).
  • U.S. passport stamps may be considered a part of the evidence submitted, but should not be the sole documentary evidence. Drivers’ licenses do not constitute evidence of physical presence.

If you have other children who have been issued with a Consular Report of Birth Abroad, this may be considered as supplemental evidence. Please also read important information regarding Supporting Documents.

A Consular Report of Birth Abroad (CRBA) is official evidence of United States citizenship, issued to a child born abroad to a U.S. citizen parent or parents, who meet the requirements for transmitting citizenship under the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA).

CRBA applications must be made before the child’s 18th birthday, and we strongly recommend that parents apply for the CRBA as soon as possible after the child’s birth. For applicants older than age 18 who have never been issued a CRBA, please refer to Possible Derivative Claim to U.S. Citizenship. Anyone who has a claim to U.S. citizenship must be in possession of a valid U.S passport to enter and exit the United States, even if they have citizenship of another country.

Upon review of the information provided in the this link, if you believe that your child has a claim to U.S. citizenship, you should prepare the appropriate documentation and schedule an appointment for the child to appear in person at the nearest embassy or consulate to submit the application.

As a CRBA is not a travel document, it is strongly recommended that you submit an application for the child’s U.S. passport at the same time.  Both applications may be submitted together at your scheduled appointment.  Please note that you must apply for your child’s social security number at a U.S. Social Security Administration office. General information on SSA services for people living outside the United States can be found at this website

The steps required to apply for a CRBA are in the following section.

Both parents must come in person with the child and should bring:

Required Documents:

  • Application Forms: (Complete but do not sign, as these documents must be signed in front of a Consular Officer)
    • DS-2029 Application for Consular Report of Birth Abroad (PDF 353KB). When a child is born out of wedlock to a U.S. citizen father and foreign mother, the U.S. citizen father must complete question #28, the Affidavit of Parentage and Financial Support.  In addition, the parents must submit evidence of paternity, the parent’s relationship prior to the child’s birth, and support. (PDF 53KB)
    • If you are also applying for a passport, complete the DS-11 online and print.
    • If you experience trouble with the Passport Application Wizard, download the Form DS-11 (PDF – 89kb)
    • If only one parent is a U.S. citizen, the U.S. citizen parent must present evidence of his/her physical presence in the United States prior to the child’s birth (generally at least 5 years physical presence in the United States, including two years while over the age of 14). This is a general guideline only. Transmission requirements vary by the child’s date of birth and the marital status of the child’s parents. The U.S. citizen parent may use school records, income taxes, or other documentation to assist in proving physical presence in the United States.
    • For the passport photo, submit one recent, color photograph 2×2 inches (5×5 cm) with a plain white background and no dates on the photo.
  • Additional required documents (all originals):

    1. The original and copy of the child’s Brazilian birth certificate;
    2. For all applicants with Brazilian birth certificates filed on or after January 1, 2018, the applying parents must provide additional evidence of the child’s biological relationship to the parent(s) transmitting citizenship.  If your child has a Brazilian birth certificate filed on or after January 1, 2018, you must bring an original full-content birth certificate (“inteiro teor por cópia reprográfica em papel de certidão”), which can be obtained at the “cartório” where the birth was registered.
    3. The original and copy of the parents’ Civil Marriage Certificate – if applicable;
    4. If one or both parents have been previously married, the original and copy of the document terminating such marriage(s), i.e. divorce decree, death certificate, etc.;
    5. Satisfactory evidence that the child is the natural child of the mother whose name appears on the Birth Certificate. This may be in the form of medical reports covering prenatal care, a doctor’s signed statement attesting to pre-natal treatment, mother’s pre-natal exams, hospital records where the child was born, or other evidence as may be required by the consular officer. There are also situations which, on occasion, necessitate further proof to verify the relationship between the parents and the child. Adequate pre and postnatal documentation and registration at the U.S. Embassy, Consulate, or Consular Agency as soon as possible after the child’s birth are strongly encouraged;
    6. Evidence of the parent’s U.S. citizenship. This may be in the form of a valid U.S. passport or passport ID, an original of a U.S. birth certificate, a U.S. certificate of naturalization, a consular report of birth abroad, or a U.S. certificate of citizenship. If one parent is not a U.S. citizen he/she must present his/her passport and a Brazilian ID Card if he/she is a resident of Brazil;
    7. Original and copy of the child’s Brazilian passport (if already issued);
    8. Original and copy of the parents’ valid passports;
    9. Registration from the hospital where the child was born,
    10. Family photos showing the child’s development if the child is not an infant.
  • For fees information please click here . These fees can be paid in international credit cards (Visa, MasterCard, American Express, Diners) or cash (U.S. dollars or Brazilian Reais at Brasilia, Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo consulates or only Brazilian Reais at Recife Consulate)

Additional Information:

  • The issuance of a Consular Report of Birth Abroad requires that the applicant’s name matches the name in his/her birth document(s). Material changes to the applicant’s name must be supported by an amended document or other name change evidence. An affidavit from the parents is not sufficient to establish a material name change.
  • Originals of all documents presented will be returned to the reporting parent(s). The copies will be certified and will accompany the final report of birth, which is submitted to the Department of State for permanent record keeping.
  • The parents will receive a certified copy of the Consular Report of Birth Abroad.
  • Children born in Brazil to American parents, except those in diplomatic or official status, acquire Brazilian Citizenship at birth as well as a possible claim to American Citizenship. Children with dual nationality are required to enter and exit Brazil with a Brazilian passport; however, they will also need a U.S. passport to enter and exit the United States.


Important! With the exception of emergency services, all U.S. citizen services must be scheduled in advance. On the list below, select the location where you would like to apply for a service.

Please check the Contact Information and Working Hours page to find out the appropriate e-mail and street address, and working hours of each American citizen Services Unit in Brazil.

Official copies of a previously issued Consular Report of Birth Abroad are not available from the Embassy or Consulate and must be requested directly from the Department of State in Washington. Please see the Department of State website for ordering instructions.

A Consular Report of Birth Abroad can be issued to U.S. citizens only before their 18th birthday. If you have reached your 18th birthday and were born outside of the United States to a U.S. citizen parent, a Consular Report of Birth Abroad can no longer be issued. Nevertheless, you may still be eligible for a U.S. citizenship.

If you believe you may be a U.S. citizen based on the citizenship of your parent(s), please schedule an appointment and follow the instructions for a Report of Birth Abroad above.

I do not have a Consular Report of Birth Abroad; how can I obtain a copy? 

If you were born abroad, your parents should have registered your birth at a U.S. Embassy or consulate and received a Consular Report of Birth Abroad, Form FS-240. This form is acceptable legal proof of birth and U.S. citizenship. Records are kept at the Passport Vital Records Section in Washington, DC.

My child has both Brazilian and American citizenship. At what age must s/he choose which citizenship s/he wants to keep? 

American citizenship is for life. The laws covering the retention of citizenship have been greatly liberalized, thanks in large part to the lobbying of American community groups overseas. No child has to do anything at any age to retain, choose, affirm, or confirm American citizenship. In the 1980s, the Supreme Court ruled that citizenship is a Constitutional right, which cannot be taken away from a citizen who does not intend to relinquish it.

Generally, immediate family members may accompany passport or CRBA applicants to their appointment interviews at a U.S. embassy or consulate, and all minor children must be accompanied by a parent or guardian.  Passport or CRBA applicants also have the option of being accompanied by an attorney at their appointment interview.  Attendance by any third party, including an attorney, accompanying an applicant is subject to the following parameters designed to ensure an orderly appointment interview process and to maintain the integrity of the adjudication of the application(s):

  • Given space limitations in the consular section, not more than one attendee at a time will be allowed to accompany an applicant (or the applicant’s parent or guardian if the applicant is a minor).
  • Attendance by an attorney does not excuse the applicant and/or the minor applicant’s parent or guardian from attending the appointment interview in person.
  • The manner in which a passport or CRBA appointment interview is conducted, and the scope and nature of the inquiry, shall at all times be at the discretion of the consular officer, following applicable Departmental guidance.
  • It is expected that attorneys will provide their clients with relevant legal advice prior to, rather than at, the appointment interview, and will advise their clients prior to the appointment interview that the client will participate in the appointment interview with minimal assistance.
  • Attorneys may not engage in any form of legal argumentation during the appointment interview and before the consular officer.
  • Attendees other than a parent or guardian accompanying a minor child may not answer a consular officer’s question on behalf or in lieu of an applicant, nor may they summarize, correct, or attempt to clarify an applicant’s response, or interrupt or interfere with an applicant’s responses to a consular officer’s questions.
  • To the extent that an applicant does not understand a question, s/he should seek clarification from the consular officer directly.
  • The consular officer has sole discretion to determine the appropriate language(s) for communication with the applicant, based on the facility of both officer and applicant and the manner and form that best facilitate communication between the consular officer and the applicant.  Attendees may not demand that communications take place in a particular language solely for the benefit of the attendee.  Nor may attendees object to or insist on the participation of an interpreter in the appointment interview, to the qualifications of any interpreter, or to the manner or substance of any translation.
  • No attendee may coach or instruct applicants as to how to answer a consular officer’s question.
  • Attendees may not object to a consular officer’s question on any ground (including that the attendee regards the question to be inappropriate, irrelevant, or adversarial), or instruct the applicant not to answer a consular officer’s question.  Attendees may not interfere in any manner with the consular officer’s ability to conduct all inquiries and fact-finding necessary to exercise his or her responsibilities to adjudicate the application.
  • During a passport or CRBA appointment interview, attendees may not discuss or inquire about other applications.
  • Attendees may take written notes, but may not otherwise record the appointment interviews.
  • Attendees may not engage in any other conduct that materially disrupts the appointment interview.  For example, they may not yell at or otherwise attempt to intimidate or abuse a consular officer or staff, and they may not engage in any conduct that threatens U.S. national security or the security of the embassy or its personnel.  Attendees must follow all security policies of the Department of State and the U.S. embassy or consulate where the appointment interview takes place.
  • Attendees may not engage in any conduct that violates this policy and/or otherwise materially disrupts the appointment interview.  Failure to observe these parameters will result in a warning to the attendee and, if ignored, the attendee may be asked to leave the appointment interview and/or the premises, as appropriate.  It would then be the applicant’s choice whether to continue the appointment interview without the attendee present, subject to the consular officer’s discretion to terminate the appointment interview.  The safety and privacy of all applicants awaiting consular services, as well as of consular and embassy personnel, is of paramount consideration.

Apply for Loss of Citzenship

Legal Requirements

Review legal requirements and possible expatriating acts before beginning this process. Loss of U.S. citizenship is a serious and irrevocable act which deserves your thoughtful consideration. It is imperative that you fully understand the nature of its consequences prior to requesting a Certificate of Loss of Nationality. Please note that the action you are taking is irrevocable. For questions related to possible tax implications, please contact the Internal Revenue Service.

Remember that expatriation can never be exercised by another person, including parents and/ or legal guardians.

If you wish to apply for a Certificate of Loss of Nationality you will be required to attend an appointment with a consular officer. At the time of your appointment, the consular officer will interview you and, if necessary, administer the Oath of Renunciation and forward your application to the Department of State for review. This process may take several months to complete.

Renunciation refers to the expatriating act of taking a formal oath of renunciation of citizenship.  To apply for expatriation under Section 349 (a)(5) of Immigration and Nationality Act (INA), please submit the following:

  1. Evidence of U.S. Citizenship (such as your most recent U.S. passport or U.S. birth certificate, if you are not in possession of your U.S. passport)
  2. U.S. Consular Report of Birth Abroad, if applicable
  3. Bio-pages of all current foreign passports
  4. Certificates of Naturalization for any country, including the United States, if applicable
  5. Certificates of Citizenship for any country, including the United States, if applicable
  6. Evidence of any name changes, if applicable (for instance marriage or divorce certificates, court orders, or deed polls)


Relinquishment is the performance of an expatriating act voluntarily taken with the intent to relinquish citizenship.  In the event that you committed a potential expatriating act with the intent to lose U.S. citizenship as described in Sections 349 (a)(1)-(4) and (6)(7) of the INA, please submit the following:

  1. Evidence of U.S. Citizenship (such as your most recent U.S. passport or U.S. birth certificate, if you are not in possession of your U.S. passport)
  2. U.S. Consular Report of Birth Abroad, if applicable
  3. Bio-pages of all current foreign passports
  4. Certificates of Naturalization for any country, including the United States, if applicable
  5. Certificates of Citizenship for any country, including the United States, if applicable
  6. Evidence of any name changes, if applicable (for instance marriage or divorce certificates, court orders or deed polls)
  7. Completed form DS-4079 – download the form from the Department of State website:


Non-refundable fee of $2,350 or equivalent in Brazilian reais payable in cash or major credit/debit card at the time of the appointment.

For more details and to schedule a Loss of Citizenship appointment please contact the American Citizen Services unit at the Embassy or Consulates:

Please do not schedule a Loss of Nationality appointment using our online calendar. All appointments for this service will be scheduled by email only.

Brasilia –
Porto Alegre –
Recife –
Rio de Janeiro –
Sao Paulo –